Perceived Shifts in US-Vietnam Relations Amid Rising US-China Tensions


  1. India succeeded in getting G20 nations to agree on joint declaration despite divisions over Ukraine war, but declaration did not explicitly condemn Russia (Al Jazeera, Reuters)

  2. Western nations pushed for stronger language condemning Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, while Russia and China resisted (Politico, CNN)

  3. Developing nations criticized the West over demands to rapidly reduce fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions (Al Jazeera)

  4. India touted its role bridging divides between developed and developing nations at the summit (Times of India, Al Jazeera)

  5. Ukraine rejected declaration as too soft on Russia, while U.S. praised India’s leadership in bringing consensus (AP, Reuters)

Relations, Strategy & Tensions

6A. Märzen

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Overall Impression: An elegant, malty German amber lager with a clean, rich, toasty and bready malt flavor, restrained bitterness, and a dry finish that encourages another drink. The overall malt impression is soft, elegant, and complex, with a rich aftertaste that is never cloying or heavy.

History: As the name suggests, brewed as a stronger “March beer” in March and lagered in cold caves over the summer. Modern versions trace back to the lager developed by Spaten in 1841, contemporaneous to the development of Vienna lager. However, the Märzen name is much older than 1841; the early ones were dark brown, and in Austria the name implied a strength band (14 °P) rather than a style. The German amber lager version (in the Viennese style of the time) was first served at Oktoberfest in 1872, a tradition that lasted until 1990 when the golden Festbier was adopted as the standard festival beer.

6B. Rauchbier

Overall Impression: An elegant, malty German amber lager with a balanced, complementary beechwood smoke character. Toasty-rich malt in aroma and flavor, restrained bitterness, low to high smoke flavor, clean fermentation profile, and an attenuated finish are characteristic.

History: A historical specialty of the city of Bamberg, in the Franconian region of Bavaria in Germany. Beechwood-smoked malt is used to make a Märzen-style amber lager. The smoke character of the malt varies by maltster; some breweries produce their own smoked malt (rauchmalz).

6C. Dunkles Bock

Overall Impression: A dark, strong, malty German lager beer that emphasizes the malty-rich and somewhat toasty qualities of continental malts without being sweet in the finish.

History: Originated in the Northern German city of Einbeck, which was a brewing center and popular exporter in the days of the Hanseatic League (14th to 17th century). Recreated in Munich starting in the 17th century. The name “bock” is based on a corruption of the name “Einbeck” in the Bavarian dialect, and was thus only used after the beer came to Munich. “Bock” also means “Ram” in German, and is often used in logos and advertisements.


The G20 summit was recently held in New Delhi, India and saw divisions emerge between Western and developing nations over key issues like the Ukraine war and climate change, according to Al Jazeera. As the host, India aimed to position itself as a champion of the Global South amidst these divides. However, behind-the-scenes tensions arose on issues like fossil fuel use and the role of multilateral development banks, per Al Jazeera’s reporting.

On climate change, India and other developing nations pushed back on demands from European countries to rapidly cut fossil fuel use, with India citing the need for growth, Al Jazeera notes. A compromise was reached where the declaration committed to tripling renewable energy capacity globally but didn’t include fossil fuel phase-out language. Reuters reports the declaration said greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced 43% by 2030 based on 2019 levels.

Regarding the Ukraine war, Western countries sought explicit condemnation of Russia’s invasion but faced resistance from Russia and China, according to Politico and CNN. The final declaration refrained from directly criticizing Russia, instead calling on all states to refrain from using force to acquire territory, reports Reuters. Unlike the previous year’s statement that condemned Russian aggression, per AP. Ukraine rejected the declaration as too soft on Russia, while the U.S. still praised India’s leadership in bringing consensus.

India succeeded in getting the G20 nations to agree on a joint declaration despite divisions over Ukraine, but the declaration didn’t explicitly condemn Russia, notes Al Jazeera. Western nations pushed for stronger language condemning Russia’s invasion, while Russia and China resisted, according to Politico and CNN.

In his remarks, India’s Prime Minister Modi touted the country’s role as a bridge between developed and developing nations, reports Times of India. He also renewed a pitch for India to gain a permanent UN Security Council seat, citing the need for global bodies to reflect current realities.

The summit saw the addition of the 55-member African Union as a new permanent G20 member, which Modi described as a historic initiative, per Times of India. Reuters notes this gesture is expected to be reciprocated regarding India’s desire for a permanent UN Security Council seat.